harlan teklad动物饲料官网 TD.88137 饮食诱导肥胖(DIO) Adjusted calories diet (42% from fat)

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饮食诱导肥胖Envigo

harlan teklad动物饲料官网 TD.88137 饮食诱导肥胖(DIO) Adjusted calories diet (42% from fat)

用于诱导肥胖和肥胖相关并发症(如糖尿病和代谢综合征)的纯化高脂饮食通常有40-60%的能量来源于脂肪。下面的饮食表总结了一些特克拉德定制研究饮食的相关饮食特征,这些研究饮食通常用于啮齿类动物模型。

泰克乐还为其他物种,包括猪、灵长类动物和狗创造高脂肪饮食。联系我们讨论使用这些饮食或更好地满足您的需要。

通常使用的饮食诱导肥胖(DIO)技术啮齿动物饮食中含有55-60%的热量来自脂肪。
饮食特征TD.06414 备好TD.93075 面团TD.07011 球团
千卡/克5.14.8
脂肪,%千卡6055
脂肪来源,
按重量计百分比
31%猪油
3%豆油
27.4%蔬菜酥油
1.6%玉米油
脂肪酸谱,
总脂肪百分比
37%饱和
47%单不饱和
16%多不饱和
28%饱和,30%反式
28%单不饱和(顺式)
14%多不饱和
蔗糖
按重量计百分比
12.19.6
注记60F10S海报数据
与D 12492比较
反式脂肪
示例修改TD.08500椰子油
TD.09766乳脂
成分匹配,
低脂控制饮食*
TD.06416(35%蔗糖)
TD.08806(11%蔗糖)
TD.93074(21%蔗糖)
TD.120651(7%蔗糖)
参考文献
大鼠

大鼠

*控制饮食可以通过几种方式来设计,这取决于研究人员相对于高脂肪饮食想要改变什么特征。这些只是几个例子。

通常使用的饮食诱导肥胖(DIO)技术啮齿动物饮食中含有40-45%的热量来自脂肪。
饮食特征TD.06415TD.08811TD.88137 备好TD.95217
千卡/克4.64.74.54.3
脂肪,%千卡45454240
脂肪来源,
按重量计百分比
19.5%猪油
3%豆油
21%乳脂
2%豆油
21%乳脂10.6%蔬菜酥油
4%乳脂
4%豆油
脂肪酸谱,
总脂肪百分比
36%饱和
46%单不饱和
18%多不饱和
61%饱和
31%单不饱和
8%多不饱和
62%饱和
27%单不饱和
5%多不饱和
34%饱和,18%反式
29%单不饱和(顺式)
19%多不饱和
蔗糖
按重量计百分比
22.836.834.515.8
注记与D 12451比较45F30S海报数据“西餐”
添加胆固醇
反式脂肪
示例修改TD.110716乳脂
TD.10670无染料
TD.130784猪油
TD.120438无染料
TD.07201猪油
TD.00573椰子油,不含胆固醇
TD.09682蓝色染料
TD.07734绿色染料
成分匹配,
低脂控制饮食*
TD.06416(35%蔗糖)
TD.110675(18%蔗糖)
TD.120455(6%蔗糖,抗性淀粉)
TD.120724(14%蔗糖)
TD.05230(34%蔗糖)
TD.08485(12%蔗糖)
TD.06101(6%蔗糖)
参考文献
大鼠

大鼠

大鼠

大鼠

全塌

饮食诱导肥胖(DIO)

从脂肪中摄取55-60%卡路里的食物TD.06414TD.93075通常用于诱发啮齿动物肥胖。虽然与典型的人类脂肪摄入相比,这些饮食被认为是极端的,但在大多数啮齿类动物中,这些饮食能有效地启动快速增重。由于脂肪含量较高,碳水化合物的摄入空间较小,因此碳水化合物(特别是蔗糖)含量相对较低。如果你对高脂肪和高碳水化合物感兴趣,那就看看脂肪中含有40-45%卡路里的饮食(通常被称为西方饮食)。

随着脂肪水平的增加,球团的质量(耐久性)经常受到损害。一些高脂肪配方只有在非颗粒形式,或需要特定的碳水化合物,麦芽糊精,用于球团。根据使用的脂肪和碳水化合物来源,非颗粒形式可能是致密和碎屑,面团样,或糊状。虽然使用非颗粒饮食更具有挑战性,但许多研究人员仍在使用非颗粒饮食来建立饮食诱导的肥胖模型,因为这些研究人员怀疑,较软的饮食形式可能会促进肥胖的发展。

从脂肪中摄取40-45%卡路里的饮食,如TD.95217TD.88137TD.06415,和TD.08811,代表了另一种流行的饮食模式-诱发肥胖的工作。这些食物的蔗糖含量是高脂肪饮食的两倍或三倍。高水平的简单碳水化合物,如蔗糖和果糖,可能有助于促进高甘油三酯血症,胰岛素抵抗和脂肪肝。高蔗糖、高饱和或反式脂肪的饮食在肥胖和心血管领域常被称为“西方饮食”。一些“西方饮食”有进一步的修改脂肪酸剖面,甚至特定的维生素和矿物质调整,以更紧密地匹配西方饮食模式。有关特定脂肪酸的修改,请参阅脂肪/脂肪调节饮食一页。

饮食诱导糖尿病

许多用于诱导啮齿动物肥胖的饮食可以用于增强糖尿病相关表型,如胰岛素抵抗和葡萄糖不耐受。然而,空腹高血糖特征的糖尿病(葡萄糖>200 mg/dL)是罕见的饮食方法。预先喂食高脂饮食,诱导一定程度的肥胖和胰岛素抵抗,然后给予小剂量链脲佐菌素(STZ)可能是一个有效的方法,如果公开高血糖是需要。

成分匹配的低脂DIO控制饮食

除了不同类型的碳水化合物外,还有许多不同水平和类型的脂肪,从蔗糖(高精制,简单消化)到玉米淀粉(精制,但更复杂),再到抗性淀粉(精制,但不能完全消化)。一个非常基本的净化控制饮食将是AIN-93M (TD.94048) 或AIN-93g(TD.94045)AIN-93日粮中蔗糖含量在10%左右,脂肪来源于具有健康脂肪酸的大豆油。更多的控制特定DIO饮食的例子可以在上表中找到。

许多研究人员选择将高脂肪喂养的动物与食用天然成分谷物的动物(也称为标准饮食或周食)进行比较。这些饮食在营养来源和水平以及非营养因素(如植酸盐或植物雌激素)存在的情况下存在差异。根据您的主要比较,它可能适合作为您的对照/参考组谷物基础的饮食。然而,这样的比较限制了对饮食模式和特定饮食成分的推断。

Diet induced obesity | Envigo

Purified high fat diets used to induce obesity and obesity-related complications such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome typically have 40-60% of energy derived from fat. The diet tables below summarize relevant diet features for several Teklad custom research diets commonly used in rodent models.

Teklad also creates high-fat diets for other species, including pigs, primates, and dogs. Contact us to discuss the use of these diets or one that better meets your needs.

COMMONLY-USED DIET-INDUCED OBESITY (DIO) TEKLAD RODENT DIETS WITH 55-60% OF CALORIES FROM FAT
DIET FEATURESTD.06414STOCKEDTD.93075DOUGHTD.07011PELLET
Kcal/g5.14.8
Fat, % Kcal6055
Fat Sources,
% by weight
31% lard
3% soybean oil
27.4% vegetable shortening
1.6% corn oil
Fatty acid profile,
% total fat
37% saturated
47% monounsaturated
16% polyunsaturated
28% saturated, 30% trans
28% monounsaturated (cis)
14% polyunsaturated (cis)
Sucrose,
% by weight
12.19.6
Notes60F10S poster data
Compare to D12492
Trans fat
Example modificationsTD.08500coconut oil
TD.09766 milk fat
Ingredient matched,
low fat control diets*
TD.06416 (35% sucrose)
TD.08806 (11% sucrose)
TD.93074 (21% sucrose)
TD.120651 (7% sucrose)
ReferencesMouse
Rat
Mouse
Rat

*Control diets can be designed in several ways, depending on what features the researcher wants to modify relative to the high-fat diet. These are just a few examples.

COMMONLY-USED DIET-INDUCED OBESITY (DIO) TEKLAD RODENT DIETS WITH 40-45% OF CALORIES FROM FAT
DIET FEATURESTD.06415TD.08811TD.88137STOCKEDTD.95217
Kcal/g4.64.74.54.3
Fat, % Kcal45454240
Fat sources,
% by weight
19.5% lard
3% soybean oil
21% milk fat
2% soybean oil
21% milk fat10.6% vegetable shortening
4% milk fat
4% soybean oil
Fatty acid profile,
% total fat
36% saturated
46% monounsaturated
18% polyunsaturated
61% saturated
31% monounsaturated
8% polyunsaturated
62% saturated
27% monounsaturated
5% polyunsaturated
34% saturated, 18% trans
29% monounsaturated (cis)
19% polyunsaturated (cis)
Sucrose,
% by weight
22.836.834.515.8
NotesCompare to D1245145F30S poster data“Western Diet”
Cholesterol added
Trans fat
Example modificationsTD.110716 milk fat
TD.10670 no dye
TD.130784 lard
TD.120438 no dye
TD.07201 lard
TD.00573 h-coconut oil, no cholesterol
TD.09682 blue dye
TD.07734 green dye
Ingredient matched,
low fat control diets*
TD.06416 (35% sucrose)
TD.110675 (18% sucrose)
TD.120455 (6% sucrose, resistant starch)
TD.120724 (14% sucrose)
TD.05230 (34% sucrose)
TD.08485 (12% sucrose)
TD.06101 (6% sucrose)
ReferencesMouse
Rat
Mouse
Rat
Mouse
Rat
Mouse
Rat

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Diets for diet-induced obesity (DIO)

Diets with 55-60% of calories from fat like TD.06414 and TD.93075 are commonly used for inducing obesity in rodents. While considered extreme compared to typical human fat consumption, these diets are effective in initiating rapid weight gain in most rodents. With higher fat content there is less room for carbohydrate, thus the carbohydrate (particularly sucrose) amount is relatively low compared to other obesity inducing diets. If you are interested in high fat and high carbohydrate, look at diets with 40-45% of calories from fat (often referred to as western diets).

As the fat level increases, pellet quality (durability) is often compromised. Some higher fat formulas are available only in non-pelleted form or require specific carbohydrate, maltodextrin, for pelleting. Depending on the fat and carbohydrate sources used, the non-pelleted form could be dense and crumbly, dough-like, or paste-like. Though a little more challenging to work with, non-pelleted diet is still used by many researchers for diet-induced obesity models as these researchers suspect the softer form may enhance obesity development.

Diets with 40-45% of calories from fat, like TD.95217TD.88137TD.06415, and TD.08811, represent another popular diet pattern for diet-induced obesity work. These diets have double or triple the amount of sucrose found in higher fat diets. High levels of simple carbohydrate like sucrose and fructose may help to promote hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and fatty liver. Diets with a pattern of high sucrose and high saturated or trans fat are often referred to as “Western Diets” in obesity and cardiovascular fields. Some “Western Diets” have further modifications to the fatty acid profile or even specific vitamin and minerals adjustments to be even more closely matched to a Western Diet pattern. For specific fatty acid modifications, see examples on our fat/lipid adjusted diets page.

Diets for diet-induced diabetes

Many of the same diets used for inducing obesity in rodents can be used to enhance diabetes related phenotypes like insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. However, fasting hyperglycemia characteristic of diabetes (glucose > 200 mg/dL) is uncommon with a diet only approach. Pre-feeding a high fat diet to induce a certain level of obesity and insulin resistance and then giving low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) may be an effective approach if overt hyperglycemia is desired.

Ingredient matched, low-fat DIO control diets

There are many options with different levels and types of fat in addition to different types of carbohydrate ranging from sucrose (highly refined, simple digestion) to corn starch (refined, but more complex) to resistant starch (refined, but not fully digestible). A very basic purified control diet would be AIN-93M (TD.94048) or AIN-93G (TD.94045). AIN-93 diets have a moderate amount of sucrose at ~10%, and fat is from soybean oil with a healthy fatty acid profile. Additional examples of controls for specific DIO diets can be found in the above tables.

Many researchers choose to compare their high fat fed animals to animals fed a natural ingredient, grain-based diet (also referred to as standard diets or chow). These diets differ in the source and level of nutrients as well as in the presence of non-nutritive factors (such as phytates or phytoestrogens). Depending on what your main comparisons are, it may be suitable to have a grain-based diet as your control/reference group. However, making such comparisons limits inferences to dietary patterns versus a specific dietary component.

harlan teklad官网 动物饲料 脂肪/脂调节 TD.96355生酮饮食

脂肪/脂调节Envigo

harlan teklad官网 动物饲料 脂肪/脂调节 TD.96355生酮饮食

在饮食中调节脂肪的水平和来源是有很多可能性的。如果你的主要兴趣是引发动脉粥样硬化或肥胖症,你可以在我们的特克乐上找到更多的信息。动脉粥样硬化饮食诱导肥胖(Dio)饮食页。根据你的研究目标和所需要的脂肪补充水平,脂肪可以添加到一个标准的天然成分饮食或净化饮食。

纯化的成分被提炼到化学简单的程度,并允许极端的脂肪水平,例如没有脂肪饮食。TD.03314或者是高脂肪的生酮饮食TD.96355。除非对纤维水平做出调整,否则高脂肪水平的饮食将有更大的热量密度,因为脂肪含有9千卡/克,而碳水化合物或蛋白质为4千卡/克。动物善于调节热量的摄入,因此通常调整其他营养素(维生素、矿物质、蛋白质)相对能量含量,以说明饲料摄入量的差异。

特殊脂肪可以用于这种必需脂肪酸缺乏的饮食中。TD.84224或从亚麻籽或鱼油中提供较高水平的omega-3多不饱和脂肪。通常,玉米或大豆油等植物来源的1-2%的脂肪会提供足够的必需脂肪酸。额外的脂肪提供能量,并可影响适口性,因为影响口味和饮食结构。

混合脂肪可以用来模仿西方或地中海的饮食脂肪酸谱。联系我们获得一张比较几种脂肪来源(固体脂肪、油脂)脂肪酸组成的表格。

我们还经常与客户提供的油和纯化脂肪酸,如DHA和EPA。如果你喜欢在你的实验室里混合脂肪源,问一问基本的混合。基础混合是以粉末形式提供的,并且经常允许您使用一种饮食组合来创建几种不同的饮食。

如果脂肪稳定性是一个问题,联系营养学家讨论饮食干燥,真空包装,合成抗氧化剂补充选择。

示例d上文所述的iets

联系我们讨论如何使用这些例子饮食,或更好地满足您的需要。

Fat/lipid adjusted | Envigo

There are numerous possibilities in adjusting both the level and source of fat in a diet. If your primary interest is inducing atherosclerosis or obesity, additional information can be found on our Teklad atherogenic and diet induced obesity (DIO) diet pages. Depending on your research goals and level of desired fat supplementation, fats can be added to a standard natural ingredient diet or a purified diet.

Purified ingredients are refined to the point of chemical simplicity and allow for extreme fat levels such as no fat diet TD.03314 or very high fat ketogenic diet TD.96355. Unless adjustments are made to the level of fiber, diets with high fat levels will have a greater caloric density since fat contains 9 kcal/g versus 4 kcal/g for carbohydrate or protein. Animals are good at regulating caloric intake, therefore it is common to adjust other nutrients (vitamins, minerals, protein) relative to energy content to account for differences in feed intake.

Specific fats can be utilized as in this essential fatty acid deficient diet TD.84224 or to provide high levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fat from flaxseed or fish oil. Normally, 1-2% fat from plant sources like corn or soybean oil will supply sufficient levels of essential fatty acids. Additional fat provides energy and can influence palatability due to effects on taste and texture of the diet.

Mixtures of fats can be used to mimic a Western or Mediterranean diet fatty acid profile. Contact us for a table comparing the fatty acid composition of several stocked fat sources (solid fats, oils).

We also commonly work with customer supplied oils and purified fatty acids such as DHA and EPA. If you prefer to mix fat sources in your lab, ask about a basal mix. Basal mixes are supplied in powder form and often allow you to use one diet mix for creating several different diets.

If fat stability is a concern, contact a nutritionist to discuss options for diet drying, vacuum packaging, and synthetic antioxidant supplementation.

Example diets mentioned above

Contact us to discuss the use of these example diets or one that better meets your needs.